Mindland
Brains

A New Cosmic Underleague Team




The MINDLAND BRAINS represent individuals who in one way or another are assoicated with the brain and its relationship to the concepts of mind, emotion and human character.









The human brain weighs a little more than three pounds. This mass of tissue is at the very heart of the body's central nervous system and with the spinal cord it affects the functioning of every aspect of the body. Typically the brain is divided into three anatomical regions: the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain.

The forebrain is responsible for memory and intelligence and includes the cerebrum and its left and right hemispheres connected to each other by the corpus callosum. The thalamus and hypothalamus are also structures of the forebrain.

The small midbrain region forms the top part of the brain stem and functions much like a relay station controlling information in the form of electrical impulses traveling to and from the brain.

The hindbrain consists of the cerebellum, medulla oblongata and other parts of the brain stem. The hindbrain functions include control of the body's movements and other activities like breathing, heart rate, blood pressure and consciousness levels.



Starters
Jung

Pitcher
Penfield

Catcher
Wernicke

Firstbase
Broca

Secondbase
Fechner

Thirdbase
McDougall

Shortstop
Moniz

Leftfield
Freeman

Centerfield
Fulton

Rightfield
Piaget

Manager
Lashley

G.M.
Gage

Owner




1999 Mindland Brains


Players

Hans Berger, Infield
1873-1941
German psychiatrist. Investigations included the physical basis for mental functions. He devised the procedure of electroencephalography (EEG) which records human brain waves. EEG uses electrodes attached to the skull and connected to an oscillograph. The result is a visual picture of brain wave rhythms. EEG has become a standard diagnostic tool in neurology. After retiring Berger became depressed and committed suicide.




Bruno Bettelheim, Pitcher
1903-1990
Austrian-born U.S. psychologist. Trained as a Freudian psychoanalyst, Bettelheim became a recognized authority in the field of child psychology. While director of the Sonia Shankman Orthogenic School (1944-1973), he was successful in treating emotionally disturbed children by using a method of unconditionally accepting their behavior. He wrote several books including The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales (1976).




Pierre-Paul Broca, Secondbase
1824-1880
French surgeon and anthropologist. In April 1861 Broca performed an autopsy on an individual known as "Tan" that revealed substantial degeneration in the subject's brain. While alive Tan was unable to speak properly. Broca's name now denotes a portion of the brain ("Broca's area") located in the left frontal lobe that controls speech. When this area of the brain is damaged what speech capability is left is usually curt and similar to the first phrasings of a child learning to speak. (The understanding of words, written or spoken is controlled by Wernicke's area in the temporal lobe of the cerebrum.)




Gustav Fechner, Thirdbase
1801-1887
German physicist, philosopher and psychologist. Fechner founded the science of psychophysics which attempted to objectively measure mental events. He helped formulate the Weber-Fechner law that the intensity of sensation increases as the logarithm of the stimulus. Fechner also theorized that if the brain were divided into two parts by transecting the corpus callosum one mind would become two.




Marie-Jean-Paul Flourens, Outfield
1794-1867
French physiologist. Flourens provided the first experimental evidence that the cerebral cortex is responsible for the higher functions of the mind. He experimented on animals and birds and wrote, "Animals deprived of their cerebral lobes have...neither perception, nor judgement, nor memory, nor will...The cerebral lobes are therefore the exclusive seat of all the perceptions and all the intellectual faculties."




Walter Freeman, Centerfield
1895-1972
U.S. neurologist who advocated the use of psychosurgery to treat mental illness. Inspired by the work of Egas Moniz Freeman and his associate James Watts, a neurosurgeon, performed the first lobotomy in the United States on September 14, 1936. In the mid-1940s Freeman developed the trans-orbital lobotomy which became euphemistically known as the "ice pick lobotomy." By 1948 some 20,000 lobotomies had been performed in the United States. Despite Freeman's passionate support for the procedure, psychosurgery fell into disrepute during the 1950s. As the "Barnum" of lobotomy, Freeman traveled across the country lecturing and demonstrating his psychosurgical cure for mental illness. Freeman performed his last lobotomy in February 1967 when he lost a patient as a result of the procedure and had his surgical privileges revoked.




John Fulton, Rightfield
1899-1960
Helped develop the field of psychosurgery. In 1935 at a London conference of neurologists, Fulton demonstrated the effects of removing the frontal lobes of animals. Fulton had performed a lobectomy (complete removal of the lobes) on a chimpanzee called Becky who prior to the procedure would get agitated and frustrated during clinical experiments. After the brain surgery Becky displayed a a radical change in behavior. She was apparently incapable of becoming frustrated or agitated. (Incidentally both Egan Moniz and Walter Freeman attended the conference and Fulton's demonstration.)




Franz Joseph Gall, Pitcher
1758-1828
Originator of the concept of phrenology which claimed to be able to determine certain human character and personality traits by physical examination of the head. As a science, phrenology became discredited in the middle of the 19th century.




Carl Gustav Jung, Pitcher
1875-1961
Swiss psychiatrist. Originally a disciple of Freud and psychoanalysis, Jung broke with Freud in 1914 over a difference in their understanding of the role of infantile sexuality in the etiology of mental illness. Jung established his own school of "analytic psychology" which utilized the concepts of "extroversion" and "introversion." Jung's study of diverse cultures led him to the idea of the existence of archetypes of the collective unconscious which are constant across different cultures.




Heinz Kohut, Pitcher
1913-1981
Austrian-born U.S. psychoanalyst. Kohut spent some 20 years of clinical work on narcissism stressing its importance over the Oedipal complex in the development of human character and psychology. He rejected Freud's view of infantile sexuality. Kohut was president of the American Psychoanalytic Association (1964-1965) and a vice-president of the International Psychoanalytic Association (1965-1973). His major books include The Analysis of Self (1971), The Restoration of Self (1977) and The Search for the Self (1978).




William McDougall, Shortstop
1871-1938
British-born U.S. psychologist. Developed the "hormic" theory of human psychology which was critical of mechanistic behaviorism. McDougall believed that human beings were guided by instincts and cognition in the attainment of goals. In 1921 he wrote a book on Nordic superiority. At Duke University in the late 1920s he conducted research in parapsychological phenomena such as clairvoyance and telepathy.




Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz, Leftfield
1874-1955
Portuguese neurologist. Developed cerebral angiography, a nonsurgical procedure for examining blood vessels of the brain by injecting opaque substances into the brain and taking X-Rays. Egas Moniz developed and performed the first human lobotomy ("prefrontal leucotomy") in 1936 which greatly influenced the work of Walter Freeman. Egas Moniz was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1949 for his efforts in the field of psychosurgery.




Wilder Graves Penfield, Catcher
1891-1976
U.S.-born Canadian neurosurgeon. Penfield developed a surgical procedure for the treatment of epilepsy. He also used a method of exploring the human brain that involved the stimulation of the brain with a weak electrical current. By stimulating various areas of the brain he as able to observe their effects. Penfield gathered clinical evidence suggesting that the temporal lobes of the human brain are the keys to understanding memory.




Jan Evangelista Purkinje, Pitcher
1787-1869
Bohemian physiologist. Purkinje (also spelled Purkyne) made a number of observations in physiology and microscopic anatomy including the discovery (1837) of the pear-shaped cells in the middle layer of the cerebellum's cortex now known as Purkinje cells. These neurons separate the two layers of the cerebellar cortex and carry commands concerning body movement out of the cerebellum..




Wilhelm Reich, Pitcher
1897-1957
Austrian psychoanalyst. Reich developed the theory that the discharge of sexual energy ("orgone") is necessary for individual physical and psychological health. He suggested that sexual repression was a characteristic of authoritarian social structures. After arriving in the United States in 1939 he established the Orgone Institute in Maine and developed a therapeutic technique for psychological illnesses that utilized his orgonomic theories. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration declared his therapy a fraud and Reich was sentenced to 2 years in jail where he died.




Charles Scott Sherrington, Utility
1857-1952
British neurophysiologist. In 1932 Sherrington won the Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine (with Edgar Douglas Adrian) for his work regarding the function of neurons and synapses, terms he coined. "It is as if the Milky Way entered upon some cosmic dance. Swiftly the brain becomes an enchanted loom, where millions of flashing shuttles weave a dissolving pattern, always a meaningful pattern though never an abiding one; a shifting harmony of subpatterns." --Sir Charles Scott Sherrington.




Carl Wernicke, Firstbase
1848-1905
Polish-born German neurologist known for his studies of aphasia and encephalopathy. Wernicke made drawings of sensory and speech areas in the brain. A section of the brain that controls our understanding of words, spoken and written, is called Wernicke's area. In 1874 he discovered that damage in the left cerebral hemisphere (temporal lobe) causes an individual to lose the ability to understand words but has little or no effect on the ability to speak. (Speech itself is controlled by Broca's area in the frontal lobe.)




Staff

Jean Piaget, Field Manager
1896-1980
Swiss psychologist. At age 15 Piaget published an article on mollusks and he received his doctorate in science in 1918. His interest in psychology began with his observations of children and how they get to know space, time and causality. Piaget theorized that children pass through four mental stages in their construction and reconstruction of the world from direct experience. He linked cognitive and emotional factors in the development of intelligence. Piaget wrote more than fifty books and monographs including The Child's Conception of the World (1926. English translation, 1929).




Burrhus Frederic Skinner, Coach
1904-1990
U.S. psychologist. Originally encouraged in his literary pursuits by the poet Robert Frost, B. F. Skinner became interested in psychology as a graduate student at Harvard University. Influenced by the Russian physiologist Pavlov, Skinner became one of the leading voices of psychological "behaviorism." Skinner's hypothesis is that behavior can be conditioned by external reinforcements. His theory of behaviorism was detailed in his book The Behavior of Organisms (1938). His work led to specific ideas related to social engineering, see Walden Two (1948) and Beyond Freedom and dignity (1971).




Karl Spencer Lashley, General Manager
1890-1958
U.S. psychologist. Lashley studied the relationship between brain mass and learning ability. Using white rats in a laboratory he observed that the ability to learn is proportionate to the total amount of cerebral cortex tissue available. Lashley also pointed out that not every psychological function has a specific localization in the brain's cortex. He wrote Brain Mechanisms and Intelligence (1929).




Phineas P. Gage, Team Owner
1823-1860
Gage is not a scientist, nor is he a philosopher. His fame rests on the fact that on September 13, 1848, when he was 25 years old, an iron rod passed completely through part of his brain. Gage lived and functioned more or less normally. However his personality underwent a radical transformation. Before his frontal lobes were rearranged by the passing of the missile Gage was described as a friendly, energetic man. After the accident, he had become rude, insolent, spoke profanely and had a severe temper. Unable to return to his job with the railroad he spent much of the rest of his life in sideshows including P.T. Barnum's American Museum exhibiting his head and the rod that passed through it. Gage eventually ended up in San Francisco living with his mother where he died. By the 1860s the medical community had heard about Gage and the effects of his brain damage. His case indicated that the frontal lobes of the human brain were responsible for emotions and other personality-related characteristics.





Gage's Skull



Home Park
The Cerebellum
Capacity: 8,999 Seats



Anatomy of the Cerebellum
The cerebellum is part of the hindbrain and it is responsible for the regulation of movement, balance and coordination of the body. It is oval-shaped with a central furrow called the vermis. On either side of the vermis are two lobes or hemispheres. The outer region of the cerebellum is called the cortex or gray matter. Below the cortex is the white matter. The cerebellum accounts for 11% of the brain's total weight (average human brain weight is 3.1 lbs.) Like a computer, the cerebellum receives a variety of input, processes the data and outputs commands through a complex cellular system of neurons (nerve cells.) For example a particular kind of neuron known as a Purkinje cell carries information concerning movement out of the cerebellum. The cerebellum is constantly monitoring and adjusting the various actions undertaken by the body.
Cosmic Player Plates

The following Cosmic Player Plates will be available online in 1999

  • Walter Freeman

  • Egas Moniz

  • Wilhelm Reich


Sir Charles Scott Sherrington called the brain an "enchanted loom." Perhaps the most enchanted part of the human brain is the cerebrum. Comprised of many millions of nerve cells the human cerebrum is what distinguishes the species in that the cerebrum in mankind forms a higher proportion of the brain than in any other animal. The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres, left and right and covered by the gray cerebral cortex. Among other functions the cerebrum stores memories (short- and long-term) and processes thoughts. Much of the external world is processed through the mechanisms of the cerebrum.

In the species' evolution it is the frontal lobe section of the cerebrum that is the newest, largest and the most complex. The pre-frontal part of the frontal lobe is thought to be involved with the most advanced forms of mental activity and a determinator of personality and intelligence. It was this section of Phineas Gage's brain that was injured when an iron rod passed through his skull altering his personality forever.



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1999 Mindland Brains- Official Team Roster
URL: http://www.cosmicbaseball.com/99mbr.html
Published: December 16, 1998
Copyright © 1998-1999 by the Cosmic Baseball Association
email: editor@cosmicbaseball.com

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