The Interland Domains are a new cosmic baseball team. The Domains were created on February 11, 2007.
The members of the team are non-humanoid internet (see *note) domains associated with the internet-based Domain Name System (DNS).
The DNS relates computer names (domains) to Internet Protocol (IP) addresses (and vice versa). DNS provides a global keyword-based redirection service and therefore it is an essential component of contemporary Internet communications.
The DNS concept originated with ideas discussed in the 1980s in a series of Requests For Comments (RFCs) on the need for a better identification (naming) system for the multitude of computers connecting to the internet.
Before domain names there were numbers. In 1972 the U.S. Defense Information Systems Agency created the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). IANA was responsible for assigning unique 'addresses' to each computer connected to the Internet. By 1973, the Internet Protocol or IP addressing system became the standard by which all networked computers could be located...Greater numbers of users networking with each other created a demand for a more simple and easy-to-remember system than the bulky and often confusing IP system of long, cumbersome strings of numbers (e.g. 123.456.789.1). This demand was answered by researchers and technicians at the University of Wisconsin who developed the first 'name server' in 1984. With the new name server, users were no longer required to know the exact path to other systems. Thus was the birth of the current addressing system in use today. In 1985 the Domain Name System (DNS) was implemented and the initial top-level domain names, including .com, .net, and .org, were introduced. [domainavenue.com]
symbolics.com was the first registered domain on March 15, 1985. On April 24, 1985 a number of colleges registered their domains (cmu.edu, purdue.edu, rice.edu, berkeley.edu, ucla.edu, rutgers.edu). By 1987, reports indicate there were 10,000 internet host computers. The domain domain.com was not registered until 1994 when Bill Woodcock and Jon Patel observed that "domain.com" was being used in many training materials as an example domain name.
On September 14, 1995 the registration of domain names stopped being free. The National Science Foundation (NSF) had underwritten the cost of the DNS registration program. As part of the general privatization of the internet, a domain name registration fee of $50 per year was imposed. For a discussion of the history of domain name registration fees, see David Farber, IP: a rather decent commentary on "Domain Name Registration Fees, 9.19.1995.
In 1998 the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) was created. ICANN is an international coalition of academic, business, and technical souls responsible for the management of the internet's DNS system that includes the allocation of internet protocol address space, the assignment of protocol parameters and the important task of managing the "root server system."
Sample Domain WHOIS Report
Domain Name: COSMICBASEBALL.COM
2007 Player Plate Link
|Domain Fields||Home Park|
The history and evolution of the Interland Domains is a mostly uncorroborated narrative. It is less a linear story with obvious milestones and dates than a tale with nodes and nexus points...intertwined and spread out.
The Interland Domains are the offspring of a group that coalesced for a period among the islands of Domania where databaseball was popular. Known for a while as the Interislanders, today's collection of Interland Domain players represents some of the best databaseball playing domains.
[There has been controversy. Internet history provides October 2001 as the traditional official birth date of the .INFO top-level domain. By June 27, 2001 the United States Department of Commerce had already entered the .INFO TLD into the domain name system root zone. This enabled .INFO domain names and web sites to become live and accessible through internet browsers. In sixteen months an estimated one-million .INFO domain registrations were recorded...(los-angeles-real-estate-search.info was announced by the registrars as the one millionth-.INFO registration on November 17, 2002.. For more details about the history of the .INFO top-level domain, please see this PDF-based report which is a Three Year Analysis of the .INFO Domain.)]
Originally, the Interislanders accepted only some of the established Top Level Domains (TLDs). Other TLDs were excluded and resentment developed. The .COM and .NET top-level domains led the move to exclude other developing TLDs. Newer TLDs like .BIZ and .INFO were not welcome. Fortunately, wiser, calmer souls in and around the databaseball environment intervened to settle matters and in late 2006 the .INFO top level domain was invited to join the list of domains eligible to play on the Interislanders databaseball team.
In a striking display of effort, the .INFO domains have quickly assimilated and have essentially become a dominant force on the team, or at least on the mound. Today, as the Interland Domains join the Cosmic Baseball Association, the .INFO TLD-based players on the team account for 75% of the players. The ENTIRE Domain pitching staff is made up of .INFO domains. Stunning...Especially when you consider that as the .INFO domains infiltrated the roster the .EDU and .MIL TLDs became exasperated and left to form a private and exclusive databaseball club. While .ORG domains are eligible to play, there are no .ORG players. (The general manager of the Interland Domains is from the .ORG top-level domain.) (.BIZ TLDs are still not eligible to play, according to the team's rules of eligibility.)
Final Official 2007 BATTING Statistics
Final Official 2007 PITCHING Statistics
The Internet Domain Name System
An Experiment in Human/Computer Communications
The Domain Name System as an idea and as a reality has its origins in the ideas of the interesting people who engaged in the development of a widely distributed computer communications network.
Naming all the individuals who have contributed to the emergence of the global computer network (internet) would take a considerable amount of time and space here and those names are available for mining on the World Wide Web.
However, one individual name sits at or very close to the root of the concept: Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider. Mr. Licklider was a teacher and an inspiration to a generation of souls who made important contributions to the deployment of the internet.
Licklider's work on the U.S. Air Force's Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) project provided the experience that led to his vision of the computer as a communications device. Licklider's fertile imagination took the number-crunching focus of computer scientists and replaced it with a community-expanding communications emphasis. The 1950s SAGE project, designed as a component of the nation's national security apparatus also provided direction in the interactive use of computer technology. The Semi-automatic aspect of SAGE meant that there was a human factor.
SAGE inspires a few thinkers, including JCR Licklider at the MIT Lincoln Lab, to see computing in a new light. Licklider thinks of it as an example of human-machine symbiosis, "where the machine functions as a problem-solving partner". Humans and machines are interdependent on each other and form a single system.
In 1962 Jack Ruina, director of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) hired Licklider to manage the agencies Information Processing Technologies Office (IPTO). IPTO's mandate was to fund research to help develop a sustainable wide area network to connect key Department of Defense locations such as the Pentagon, the Cheyenne Mountain Complex (Cheyenne Mountain is the command, control, communication and intelligence center for coordinating and controlling North American Aerospace Defense Command [NORAD] and United States Space Command [USSPACECOM] missions.), and the Strategic Air Command's headquarters in Omaha, Nebraska. (SAC was in charge of the United States' non-submarine-based nuclear arsenal).
Licklider's focused on distributed computer networks and human/computer interaction. Licklider began to see his vision of an "intergalactic computer network" emerge. In 1963, IPTO funded Project MAC that experimented with the development of time-sharing computer-based communities. The project showed that there were tangible benefits to widespread computer networking.
Licklider left ARPA and the IPTO to work for IBM in 1964. Nevertheless, his influence remained. The next several IPTO directors followed Licklider's lead in furthering the development of a globally accessible computer-based communications network. In April 1968 Licklider and Robert Taylor published "The Computer as a Communication Device" in Science & Technology magazine.
On June 3, 1968, a report entitled Resource Sharing Computer Networks by Lawrence Roberts (IPTO's Chief Scientist) and Robert Taylor (IPTO's 3rd Director). This report represents the plan for the ARPANET that is generally recognized as the mother of the "Internet." On June 21, the report's ideas were accepted and the ARPANET concept was formally approved. ARAPNET went "online" on August 30, 1969.
Early in ARPANET's evolution, the use of alphabetic host names to represent the numerical addresses that the network infrastructure is built on was adopted. The creation and maintenance of the HOSTS.TXT file was used to map the names with the numbers. In December 1973, a decision to centralize management of the HOSTS.TXT file was approved and responsibility delegated to Stanford University. This system was in place until approximately 1983 when the "domain" concept emerged as a solution to the complexity of email hosts emerging on the network.
The Domain Name System was originally suggested in the 1980s as a solution to the problem of the rapid growth of email communications on ARPANET. A series of RFCs (805, 811, 812, 814, 819, 830) describe the development and implementation of the idea.
On January 28, 1986 individuals representing ARPA, the Computer Science Network (CNET), BITNET, UUCP, etc. decided on a domain taxonomy that included the creation of 8 subject specific top-level domains, to be administered by the Information Sciences Institute (ISI). The designated TLDs:
RFC 805/February 8, 1982/Computer Mail Meeting Notes
A meeting was held on the 11th of January 1982 at USC Information Sciences Institute [ISI] to discuss addressing issues in computer mail...The major conclusion reached at the meeting is to extend the "username@hostname" mailbox format to "firstname.lastname@example.org", where the domain itself can be further structured. (RFC805)
The host name server described above runs over a single global internet host name/address database. This database is an extension of the old ARPANET Hosts.txt file, and is being maintained by the NIC to provide continuity during the transition and expansion to the internet environment. We view the central administration of a global host name database, along with this simple name server, as an interim solution on the way to a decentralized, distributed name/address translation service. (RFC811)
The NICNAME/WHOIS Server is an NCP/TCP transaction based query/response server, running on the SRI-NIC machine, that provides net wide directory service to ARPANET users. It is one of a series of ARPANET/Internet name services maintained by the Network Information Center (NIC) at SRI International on behalf of the Defense Communications Agency (DCA). The server is accessible across the ARPANET from user programs running on local hosts, and it delivers the full name, U.S. mailing address, telephone number, and network mailbox for ARPANET users. (RFC812)
It has been said that the principal function of an operating system is to define a number of different names for the same object, so that it can busy itself keeping track of the relationship between all of the different names. Network protocols seem to have somewhat the same characteristic. In TCP/IP, there are several ways of referring to things. At the human visible interface, there are character string "names" to identify networks, hosts, and services. Host names are translated into network "addresses", 32-bit values that identify the network to which a host is attached, and the location of the host on that net. Service names are translated into a "port identifier", which in TCP is a 16-bit value. Finally, addresses are translated into "routes", which are the sequence of steps a packet must take to reach the specified addresses. Routes show up explicitly in the form of the internet routing options, and also implicitly in the address to route translation tables which all hosts and gateways maintain. (RFC814)
For many years, the naming convention "
@ " has served the ARPANET user community for its mail system, and the substring " " has been used for other applications such as file transfer (FTP) and terminal access (Telnet). With the advent of network interconnection, this naming convention needs to be generalized to accommodate internetworking. A decision has recently been reached to replace the simple name field, " ", by a composite name field, "domain" (RFC819) [see J. Postel, "Computer Mail Meeting Notes", RFC-805, USC/Information Sciences Institute, 8 February 1982.].
A domain is an administrative but not necessarily a topological entity. It is represented in the networks by its associated DNS. The resolution of a domain name results in the address of its associated DNS. (RFC830)
.bitnet, .com, .int., .edu, .gov, .mil, .net, .org
The ARPA theme is that the promise offered by the computer as a communication medium between people, dwarfs into relative insignificance the historical beginnings of the computer as an arithmetic engine."... "The computer industry, in the main, still thinks of the computer as an arithmetic engine. Their heritage is reflected even in current designs of their communication systems.' They have an economic and psychological commitment to the arithmetic engine model, and it can die only slowly... (ARPA Notes)
In February 2006, the National Academy of Engineering elected Paul V. Mockapetris to its membership. Now chairman and chief scientist of Nominum Inc., in Redwood City, California Mockapetris received recognition "for contributions to the Internet, including pioneering and standardizing the Domain Name System." According to the ISI website it was at ISI, in 1983, that [John] Postel and Mockapetris invented the DNS system.
A "name" (Net, Host, Gateway, or Domain name) is a text string up to 24 characters drawn from the alphabet (A-Z), digits (0-9), and the minus sign (-) and period (.). No blank or space characters are permitted as part of a name. No distinction is made between upper and lower case. The first character must be a letter. The last character must not be a minus sign or period. A host which serves as a GATEWAY should have "-GATEWAY" or "-GW" as part of its name. A host which is a TIP or a TAC should have "-TIP" or "-TAC" as part of its host name, if it is an ARPANET or DoD host. --RFC810, March 1, 1982
Two months before the Cosmic Baseball Association was created there were 213 internet domain hosts. Last July (2006) there were 439,286,364 internet host domains (according to the Internet Systems Consortium).
Definition: (Note: capital "I"). The Internet is the largest internet (with a small "i") in the world. It is a three level hierarchy composed of backbone networks, mid-level networks, and stub networks. These include commercial (.com or .co), university (.ac or .edu) and other research networks (.org, .net) and military (.mil) networks and span many different physical networks around the world with various protocols, chiefly the Internet Protocol.
Until the advent of the World-Wide Web in 1990, the Internet was almost entirely unknown outside universities and corporate research departments and was accessed mostly via command line interfaces such as telnet and FTP. Since then it has grown to become an almost-ubiquitous aspect of modern information systems, becoming highly commercial and a widely accepted medium for all sort of customer relations such as advertising, brand building, and online sales and services. Its original spirit of cooperation and freedom have, to a great extent, survived this explosive transformation with the result that the vast majority of information available on the Internet is free of charge.
While the web (primarily in the form of HTML and HTTP) is the best known aspect of the Internet, there are many other protocols in use, supporting applications such as electronic mail, Usenet, chat, remote login, and file transfer.
There are several bodies associated with the running of the Internet, including the Internet Architecture Board, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, the Internet Engineering and Planning Group, Internet Engineering Steering Group, and the Internet Society.
The Internet Index - statistics about the Internet.
internet...(Note: not capitalized) Any set of networks interconnected with routers. The Internet is the biggest example of an internet.
(Definitions source: hyperdictionary.com)
|Cosmic Baseball Association||2007 Interland Domains Roster|
|Published: February 21, 2007||Updates: 3.14.07/4.7.07|