|The BHUTAN VANGUARDS represent the Cosmic Baseball Association's team of artists and photographers.|
Canadian painter. She studied (1889–c.1895) at the San Francisco School of Art and later in London and in Paris. In Victoria, British Columbia, she taught painting and visited native villages. From her study of totem poles and other indigenous art, she developed a powerful style marked by simplified forms and a fauvist intensity of color. She wrote Klee Wyck (1941) and The House of All Sorts (1944). She also wrote an autobiography, Growing Pains (1946).
Russian painter. In 1907, Chagall left his native Vitebsk for St. Petersburg, where he studied under L. N. Bakst. In Paris (1910) he began to assimilate cubist characteristics into his expressionistic style. He is considered a forerunner of surrealism. After some years in Russia, Chagall returned to France in 1922, where he spent most of his life. His frequently repeated subject matter was drawn from Jewish life and folklore; he was particularly fond of flower and animal symbols.
Born 1940 in Monroe, Washington..
American painter. A leading photo-realist, Close specializes in larger-than-life size portraits executed from photographs in painstaking detail on a grid of small squares. His Linda (1975–76) is in the Akron Art Museum, Ohio.
1819–77. Born in Ornans, France.
French painter. He studied in Paris, learning chiefly by copying masterpieces in the Louvre. An avowed realist, Courbet was always at odds with vested authority, aesthetic or political. In 1855, Courbet exhibited Painter's Studio (Louvre). Attacked by academic painters, he set up his own pavilion where he exhibited 40 of his paintings and issued a manifesto on realism. Within the next decade he triumphed as the leader of the realist school. His influence became enormous, reaching its height with his rejection of the cross of the Legion of Honor offered him by Napoleon III in 1872.
1922-1993. Born in Oregon.
Diebenkorn has long been regarded by many artists as an "artist's artist." In the 1940s he studied with Mark Rothko and Clyfford Still at the California School of Fine Arts. From the 1940s through the early 1990s, he concentrated on one goal above all else: to create visual images that forced him to continually question the process itself. Inspired by Matisse, Gorky and other predecessors, Diebenkorn wrestled all his life with issues of abstraction versus representation. His quest culminated in the dazzling "Ocean Park" series of paintings, named for the neighborhood bordering Santa Monica, California, where his studio was located.
French painter. Duchamp is noted for his cubist-futurist painting Nude Descending a Staircase, depicting continuous action with a series of overlapping figures; it was the cause of great controversy when exhibited in 1913 at the New York Armory Show. Duchamp invented ready-mades—commonplace objects—e.g., the urinal entitled Fountain, which he exhibited as works of art. In 1915 he was a co-founder of a Dada group in New York. After 1920, Duchamp produced a series of elaborate nonfunctional machines. He emigrated to the United States in 1942. Many of his works, including the celebrated symbolic construction The Bride stripped bare by her Bachelors, even (1915–23), are at the Philadelphia Mus. of Art.
Italian painter, daughter of Prospero Fontana. She was a fashionable portrait painter in Bologna and Rome noted for her sensitivity in color and detail. Her self-portraits (two, Pitti Gall., Florence; another, St. Luke's Acad., Rome) and a portrait of Pope Gregory XIII show a fine decorative sense in the treatment of costume.
1848–1903. Born in Paris, France.
French painter and woodcut artist. Son of a journalist and a French-Peruvian mother. Gauguin is recognized as a highly influential founding father of modern art. He rejected the tradition of western naturalism, using nature as a starting point from which to abstract figures and symbols. He stressed linear patterns and remarkable color harmonies, imbuing his paintings with a profound sense of mystery. He revived the art of woodcutting with his free and daring knife work and his expressive, irregular shapes and strong contrasts. He produced some fine lithographs and a number of pottery pieces.
1882–1967. Born in Nyack, New York.
American painter and engraver. Studied in New York City with Robert Henri. Hopper lived in France for a year but was little influenced by the artistic currents there. His early paintings had slight success; he gained a reputation, however, through his etchings, which remain popular. In 1920 the first one-man show of his paintings was held; in 1933 a retrospective exhibition of his works took place at the Museum of Modern Art, New York City. He excelled in creating realistic pictures of clear-cut, sunlit streets and houses, often without figures. In his paintings there is a frequent atmosphere of loneliness, an almost menacing starkness, and a clear sense of time of day or night. His work in oil and watercolor is slowly and carefully painted, with light and shade used for pattern rather than for modeling. Hopper is represented in many leading American museums. Early Sunday Morning (1930; Whitney Museum, New York City) is a characteristic oil.
1907–54. Born in Coyoacán, Mexico.
Mexican painter. As a result of an accident at age 15, Kahlo turned her attention from a medical career to painting. Drawing on her personal experiences, her works are often shocking in their stark portrayal of pain and the harsh lives of women. Fifty-five of her 143 paintings are self-portraits incorporating a personal symbolism complete with graphic anatomical references. She was also influenced by indigenous Mexican culture, aspects of which she portrayed in bright colors, with a mixture of realism and symbolism. Her paintings attracted the attention of the artist Diego Rivera, whom she later married. Her preoccupation with female themes and the figurative candor with which she expressed them made her something of a feminist cult figure in the last decades of the 20th cent.
Born August 16, 1896 in Udine, Italy. Died 1942.
Photographer. In 1913 Modotti emigrated from Italy to the United States. She initially worked as a seamstress for I Magnin and started performing in Little Italy's operatic theaters.In 1919 she married Robo Richey an artist and political activist who introduced her to the bohemian culture of California. Modotti became an actress & model in Hollywood and met the photographer Edward Weston with whom she began an extra-marital affair. In 1923, after her husband's death, Modotti moved with Weston to Mexico City, where she managed his studio in return for photography lessons. Modotti's affair with Weston ended in 1926, perhaps because her radical political inclinations conflicted with his artistic ambitions. She joined the Mexican Communist Party in 1927 and continued taking photographs which frequently depicted the plight of women and children in poverty-striken Mexico. She fell in love with Julio Mella, an exiled Cuban revolutionary, but came under suspicion when he was assassinated in 1929. In 1930, three weeks after an attempted assassination of Mexican president Pascual Ortiz Rubio, Modotti was deported. She eventually went to live in Moscow where she worked for the Communist Party including Stalin's secret police. Her photography began to take a back seat to her political work. After working for the Communists during the Spanish Civil War she returned to Mexico where she died in 1942.
French impressionist painter. She studied with many gifted painters, including Corot. She formed a close friendship with Manet, who became her brother-in-law, and she served as model for several of his best-known paintings. The two greatly influenced each other's artistic development. Her own later work inclined toward pure impressionism in its rendering of light, while retaining an unusual smoothness of brushwork. Her most notable works, including Young Woman at the Dance (1880; Paris) and La Toilette (Art Inst., Chicago).
U.S. artist. After art school Mullican served as a topographical draftsman in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers during World War Two. Making "bird's eye view" drawings of landscape would influence his artistic development. In the 1940s, he co-founded with Gordon Onslow Ford and Wolfgang Paalen the Dynaton movement with its roots in Surrealism and automatism. A pioneer West Coast modernist whose work has been exhibited throughout the world, Mullican was a recipient of a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1959. He was a member of the UCLA art faculty since 1962, when he was appointed lecturer. He was awarded an assistant professorship in 1963 and moved up the academic ladder, retiring in1990 as a full professor. In 1999 an exhibition of his drawings from 1945-1980 depicted a style that ranged from monochrome pencil sketches and ink washes to cheerfully colored gouaches.
English photographer and student of animal locomotion. Muybridge changed his name from Edward James Muggeridge. A gifted and obsessed eccentric, he was a photographic innovator who left a vast and enormously varied body of work. In 1872 he made some experiments in photographing moving objects for the U.S. government. Afterward he was engaged by Leland Stanford to record, with a series of sequential still cameras, the movements of a horse. He invented (1881) the zoöpraxiscope, which projected animated pictures on a screen, a forerunner of the motion picture. He wrote The Horse in Motion (1878) and The Human Figure in Motion (1901). His Animals in Motion (1899, repr. 1957) consists of 11 portfolios: thousands of pictures of men, women, children, amputees, and many domestic and wild animals in action. Muybridge murdered his wife's lover in 1874; the case was dismissed as justifiable homicide.
Born 1929 in Stockholm, Sweden.
Swedish-American artist. Usually considered part of the pop art movement, Oldenburg explores the ironic and humorous aspects of common objects by grossly distorting them in scale, shape, and material. He is noted for soft sculptures of stuffed cloth (e.g., Soft Hamburger, 1962; Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto) and giant objects (e.g., Giant Saw, Hard Version, 1969; Vancouver Art Gall.). His gigantic monument, Lipstick, was erected at Yale in 1969. Since the 1970s many of his works have been monumental outdoor installations (e.g., colossal binoculars in Los Angeles, an enormous clothespin in Philadelphia, and huge shuttlecocks in Kansas City) and most have been executed in collaboration with his second wife, the Dutch artist and curator Coosje van Bruggen.
c.1905-1959. Born in Vienna, Austria.
Painter. Paalen was actively involved in the Surrealist movement in Europe in the 1930s. In 1939 Paalen went to Mexico at the invitation of Diego Rivera. Paalen has been credited with introducing the "plastic" expression of Surrealism to Mexico. In San Francisco, Paalen, with Lee Mullican and Gordon Onslow Ford founded the short-lived "Dynaton" movement which attempted to move beyond Surrealism. Paalen is credited with inventing the Surrealist technique of fumage, in which one draws on canvas with random patterns of smoke from candles.
Born 1925 in Port Arthur, Texas
American painter. Rauschenberg studied with Josef Albers. In the late 1950s he came under the influence of Marcel Duchamp, and with Jasper Johns, Rauschenberg became a pivotal figure in the emerging pop art movement. His enormously inventive paintings, incorporating everyday images and objects, are executed in a loose, spontaneous style. He has also experimented with assemblage. Gloria (1956; Cleveland Mus. of Art) and Summer Rental III (1960; Whitney Mus., New York City) are characteristic of his collages known as “combines.”
1903–1970. Born in Russia.
American painter. Rothko emigrated to the United States in 1913. He was a student of Max Weber, then came under the influence of the surrealists. In the mid-1940s Rothko experimented with abstraction, arranging intense colors in irregular shapes. Soon he was a leading exponent of color-field painting within the larger movement of abstract expressionism. His later works (e.g., No. 10, 1950; Mus. of Modern Art, New York City) frequently consist of floating rectangles of luminous color on enormous canvases that manage to convey sensuality and spirituality simultaneously. Rothko committed suicide.
1890–1976. Born New York City, New York.
American photographer. Strand studied under Lewis Hine, who introduced him to Alfred Stieglitz. At Stieglitz's famed “291” gallery, Strand had his first one-man exhibition (1916); the last two issues of Stieglitz's Camera Work (1917) were devoted to Strand's photography. His principal early subjects were Manhattan life and 20th-century machinery. In the 1920s he made his exquisitely composed landscape and nature photographs. Strand made documentary films in Mexico, the USSR, and the United States. His superb portraits of regions are reproduced in Time in New England (1950), Un Paese (1954), Tir A'Mhurain (1968, on the Hebrides), and Living Egypt (1969).
|Vincent Van Gogh
1853–1890. Born in the Netherlands.
Postimpressionist painter. Van Gogh's works are perhaps better known generally than those of any other painter. His brief, turbulent, and tragic life is thought to epitomize the mad genius legend. During his lifetime, Van Gogh's work was represented in two very small exhibitions and two larger ones. Only one of Van Gogh's paintings was sold while he lived. The great majority of the works by which he is remembered were produced in 29 months of frenzied activity and intermittent bouts with epileptoid seizures and profound despair that finally ended in suicide.
1928–1987. Born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Andrew Warhola).
, American artist and filmmaker. The leading exponent of the pop art movement, Warhol chose his imagery from the world of commonplace objects such as dollar bills, soup cans, soft-drink bottles, and soap-pad boxes. He is variously credited with attempting to ridicule and to celebrate American middle-class values by erasing the distinction between popular and high culture. In the mid-1960s Warhol began making films. In The Chelsea Girls (1966), a seven-hour voyeuristic look into hotel rooms, he used projection techniques that constituted a startling divergence from established methods. Among his later films are Trash (1971) and L'Amour (1973). He died from complications following surgery.
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1946–1989. Born in New York City, New York.
American photographer. He is known for his black-and-white studies of male and female nudes, flowers, and celebrity portraits. He credited sculpture as an influence on his work and used traditional techniques of direct lighting and sharp focus. His photographs include homoerotic and sadomasochistic images. In 1990 a Cincinnati, Ohio jury found that city's Contemporary Arts Center and its director not guilty of obscenity for exhibiting Mapplethorpe's photographs.
Born 1930 in Augusta, Georgia.
American artist. Influenced by Marcel Duchamp in the mid-1950s, Johns attempted to transform common objects into art by placing them in an art context. His flags and target images executed from 1954 to 1959 heralded the pop art movement. Johns based his painting technique on the informal brushwork and texture of abstract expressionism, attaching literal elements such as rulers and brooms to the canvas. His bronze castings, such as Beer Cans (1960), are also derived from common objects. His later works, such as the Seasons (1987), have become increasingly self-referential, using recurrent motifs as symbols to pull the viewer into an engagement with the work.
1840–1926. Born in Paris, France.
French landscape painter. Monet was a founder of impressionism. He adhered to its principles throughout his long career and is considered the most consistently representative painter of the school as well as one of the foremost painters of landscape in the history of art.
Born 1986 in Washington, D.C.
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